AskDefine | Define chloride

Dictionary Definition

chloride

Noun

1 any compound containing a chlorine atom
2 any salt of hydrochloric acid (containing the chloride ion)

User Contributed Dictionary

English

Etymology

chlor(ine) + -ide

Noun

  1. any salt of hydrochloric acid, such as sodium chloride, or any binary compound of chlorine and another element or radical

Translations

any salt of hydrochloric acid

Derived terms

Extensive Definition

The chloride ion is formed when the element chlorine picks up one electron to form an anion (negatively-charged ion) Cl−. The salts of hydrochloric acid HCl contain chloride ions and can also be called chlorides. An example is table salt, which is sodium chloride with the chemical formula NaCl. In water, it dissolves into Na+ and Cl− ions.
The word chloride can also refer to a chemical compound in which one or more chlorine atoms are covalently bonded in the molecule. This means that chlorides can be either inorganic or organic compounds. The simplest example of an inorganic covalently-bonded chloride is hydrogen chloride, HCl. A simple example of an organic covalently-bonded (an organochloride) chloride is chloromethane (CH3Cl), often called methyl chloride.
Other examples of inorganic covalently-bonded chlorides that are used as reactants are:

Human health

Chloride is a chemical the human body needs for metabolism (the process of turning the food you eat into energy). It also helps keep the body's acid-base balance. The amount of chloride in the blood is carefully controlled by the kidneys. Further reading:Renal chloride reabsorption
Chloride ions have important physiological roles. For instance, in the central nervous system, the inhibitory action of glycine and some of the action of GABA relies on the entry of Cl− into specific neurons. Also, the chloride-bicarbonate exchanger biological transport protein relies on the chloride ion to increase the blood's capacity of carbon dioxide, in the form of the bicarbonate ion.
The normal blood reference range of chloride for adults in most labs is 95 to 105 milliequivalents (mEq) per liter. The normal range may vary slightly from lab to lab. Normal ranges are usually shown next to your results in the lab report.
The North American Dietary Reference Intake recommends a daily intake of between 2300 and 3600 mg/day for 25-year-old males.

Other applications

Chloride is also a useful and reliable chemical indicator of river / groundwater fecal contamination, as chloride is a non-reactive solute and ubiquitous to sewage.
chloride in Bulgarian: Хлорид
chloride in Catalan: Clorur
chloride in Czech: Chloridy
chloride in German: Chloride
chloride in Estonian: Kloriidid
chloride in Spanish: Cloruro
chloride in Esperanto: Klorido
chloride in French: Chlorure
chloride in Indonesian: Klorida
chloride in Italian: Cloruro
chloride in Hebrew: כלוריד
chloride in Malay (macrolanguage): Klorida
chloride in Dutch: Chloride
chloride in Japanese: 塩化物
chloride in Norwegian Nynorsk: Klorid
chloride in Polish: Chlorki
chloride in Portuguese: Cloreto
chloride in Simple English: Chloride
chloride in Slovak: Chlorid
chloride in Serbian: Хлорид
chloride in Finnish: Kloridi
chloride in Swedish: Klorid
chloride in Turkish: Klorür
chloride in Chinese: 氯化物
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